The European Commission has published advice on travelling between the UK and the EU in the event of a no-deal Brexit. Here is what will change.
Will there be additional border checks?
UK citizens travelling to the EU will face extra border checks. Guards may ask travellers for information including the duration and purpose of their trip, as well as an explanation of how they intend to support themselves while in the bloc.
To cross the border UK citizens will need a passport issued within 10 years preceding the date of travel which also remains valid for three months after the planned trip is over.
The Commission has proposed that UK nationals will be able to travel visa-free for trips to the EU of up to 90 days in a 180-day period, provided the UK allows EU citizens to do the same.
The UK has announced that EU citizens can travel to the UK without a visa for visits of up to three months.
Will luggage be subject to additional customs checks?
The EU will impose customs checks on those entering the bloc from the UK and travellers will not be allowed to carry some goods across the border.
Meat, cheese, milk, plants, plant products and some animals will not be allowed into the EU from the UK, as well as cash exceeding 10,000 euro.
The UK may apply similar customs checks on EU citizens.
Those travelling from the UK to the EU will be entitled to duty free allowances.
Will there be access to healthcare when travelling?
Healthcare access using the European Health Insurance Card for both UK citizens in the EU and EU citizens in the UK will no longer be available in the event of a no-deal Brexit. The Commission advises people consider taking out private travel insurance.
Will UK and EU driving licences remain valid?
EU countries decide which international driving licences to recognise at national level. UK citizens planning on driving in the EU should check the rules in the member state they are travelling to as some will require you to hold an international permit.
Drivers will continue to be able to travel using a valid EU driving licence in the UK.
Will pets be able to travel between the UK and EU?
Pets travelling from the UK to the EU must be chipped, vaccinated against rabies, tested for rabies, comply with rules on infections and diseases and be accompanied by identification documents.
Those bringing pets from the EU to the UK should check restrictions and may need to provide a pet passport or an animal health certificate.
Will EU mobile data roaming laws continue to apply?
Companies will no longer be bound by EU restrictions on roaming fees for mobile calls, texts or data. UK citizens in the EU may be subject to a surcharge when using phones, and vice versa.
Will those travelling from the UK be entitled to VAT refunds on goods bought inside the EU?
Visitors from outside the EU can get a refund of VAT paid on goods purchased during a visit to the bloc. UK citizens must present the goods along with VAT refund documents when they are leaving the EU.