Around 100 4×4 vehicles are said to have had their tyres let down overnight as part of a targeted campaign.
The Tyre Extinguishers group said the attacks in parts of Edinburgh were its largest night of action in the city so far.
The group believes there is no need for four-wheel-drive vehicles in urban areas, and campaigners deflated tyres of SUVs in places including the Grange, Portobello and the New Town.
Similar incidents have taken place in countries including Sweden, New Zealand, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands.
A spokesperson for the Edinburgh Tyre Extinguishers said: “Politicians talk, we act. We will defend ourselves from air pollution, climate change and unsafe roads, and we urge others to join us.
“Edinburgh is a small city with good public transport. Nobody living in the centre of town needs to own one of these death machines.”
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