Edinburgh has been named the most congested city in the UK for the third year running in a new report.
The TomTom Traffic Index suggests commuters in the Scottish capital spend an average of 41% extra travel time stuck in peak traffic.
It adds up to seven days and four hours a year, making Edinburgh the world’s 33rd most congested city.
Edinburgh is followed in the report by London (38%), Brighton and Hove (35%), Bournemouth and Hull (both 34%).
Also making up the top 10 in the UK are Belfast, Southampton, Bristol, Manchester (all 33%) and Reading (32%).
Elsewhere in Scotland congestion remained stable in Glasgow, up 1% to 25% (four days and 23 hours), and it was highlighted as an example of how its Edinburgh neighbours can improve.
Stephanie Leonard, UK traffic adviser at TomTom, said: “Congestion remains a perennial problem for Edinburgh.
“Yet despite being a modern city built on Medieval foundations, city planners can look to Glasgow for lessons in how public transport programmes and road developments can have a transformative impact.
“It’s time for traffic to change. In time, the rise of autonomous vehicles and car-sharing services will help alleviate congestion across the country.
“However, policymakers can make real improvements now by using all the tools available to them to analyse traffic levels and impacts, so they can make better infrastructural decisions.”
Across the world, Bangalore takes the top spot with drivers in the southern Indian city expecting to spend an average of 71% extra travel time stuck in traffic.
The rest of the global top five is made up of Philippine capital Manila (71%); Bogota in Colombia (68%); last year’s most congested city Mumbai (65%) and Pune (59%), both also in India.
Ralf-Peter Schafer, TomTom’s vice-president of traffic information, said: “Globally, there’s a long road to travel until congestion levels are brought under control.
“In time, the rise of autonomous vehicles and car-sharing services will help alleviate congestion, but planners and policymakers can’t afford to sit and wait.
“They need to use all the tools available to them to analyse traffic levels and impacts, so they can make critical infrastructure decisions.
“And drivers have a role to play too. Small changes in driving behaviours can make a huge difference.”