Inequalities could be increased by Covid-19, according to research by the University of St Andrews.
In a study of more than 19,500 households, researchers found those without access to outdoor space, dealing with overcrowding and reductions in employment and income are more vulnerable to the effects of Covid-19.
Households of different generations were likely to exhibit different vulnerabilities, it found.
Dr Katherine Keenan, one of the lead authors of the study, said: “The findings imply that the short and long-term consequences of the Covid-19 crisis are likely to vary by household type.
“Policy measures that aim to mitigate the health and socio-economic consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic should consider how vulnerabilities cluster together across different household types, and how these may exacerbate already existing inequalities.”
Working-age homes are more likely to face financial, housing and employment issues, the research found, while retirement-age households face more health and digital vulnerabilities.
Homes across Scotland are also more likely to face digital problems compared to the rest of the UK.
Joint lead author, Dr Julia Mikolai, said: “Taken together, the findings suggest that policy measures that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of Covid-19 should not only consider health vulnerabilities at the individual level, but also household structure and household-level disadvantages such as poor housing conditions, economic insecurity, and no access to modern technology.”